Thinking about opening a restaurant or food service space?
Here's a quick primer on budgetary considerations if you are. (Steakhouse, lunch deli, breakfast cafe, bakery, coffee shop, wine bar, beer store, saloon, bistro, fast food, slow food, barbecue, buffet, cafeteria, tea house, greasy spoon, vegetarian hot dog stand, ice cream parlor, pizza pizzeria, concession booth, diner... what am I forgetting?)
Start with equipment. I'm assuming you've already resolved the concept, the cuisine, and the chef. If not, that's first before you can figure out what equipment it takes to produce it. Most food service businesses struggle the most with what they need versus can afford. Commercial kitchen equipment is very expensive compared to residential appliances. You can often find used equipment to save significantly, but you'll still need $50k-$300k depending on your selections for oven, range, grill, exhaust hood (and fire suppression system), toaster, microwave, fryer, coffee station, beer taps, refrigerators, freezers, walk-ins, refrigerated display cases, refrigerated and steam tables, plate warmers, dishwashing sinks, and dishwashers.
The next most expensive category are the utilities and all the water, sewer, grease traps, fire sprinklers, heating, air conditioning, ventilation, electrical, and lighting they support.
Bathroom requirements are relatively simple for a small retail space, so expect $10k for a single bathroom with plumbing, fixtures, exhaust, and required specialties: grab bars, mirror, toilet paper dispensers, soap dispensers, mirror, paper towel dispenser/dryer, trash cans, etc. Larger establishments or a full restaurant will need several times more.
Next comes furnishings—cabinets, casework, custom millwork, displays, tables, chairs, host station, artwork, signage, and point of sale.
Finishes are usually inexpensive unless they are lavish, dramatic, or architectural. Flooring is typically the most expensive, but ceramic or vinyl tile are efficient. Exposed concrete floors are also popular but end up being more expensive to satisfy the health department requirements to be sealed. Ceilings over food preparation areas must also be sealed and cleanable. Walls can be painted or have more sophisticated finishes.
Lighting is critical for retail spaces. Not only do the illumination levels need to be high, but the color rendering quality much more accurate than typical residential or office lighting. Brands design packaging to sell product and quality lighting shows off that design to its fullest potential.
Construction must be done by a licensed contractor unless you have the experience to do it yourself. The local economy is brisk right now (one of the highest in the US) and I recommend clients budget a 20% premium in pricing.
For design, an architect can walk with clients through the entire design–construction process, including building code analysis, design, architectural and engineering documents for permitting. I also assist clients to find a qualified contractor and administer the construction until completion, tailored to what you need. By fee schedule, design is "supposed" to be 8-12% of construction costs between $100k-$300k, roughly $8,000–$36,000. But it really depends.
For example, a small space that was recently renovated for food service will be much simpler than a large cold shell (no utilities) not intended for food. A stand-alone building is obviously even more complex. It helps if the landlord has drawings of the existing space versus the architect field surveying everything. The level of service can vary, too, from less detailed drawings for experienced clients or extra assistance to incorporate branding into the design and selection of equipment, finishes, fixtures, and furnishings.
This is a quick snapshot of a traditional house and its site plan currently in progress. I'm posting this to illustrate the larger view of architectural design.
It's common to understand traditional residential design as the simple front elevation shown in the black and white image. These are easy to create as a mirage to fool the eye without really understanding the relationship of all the materials and forms. About 99.9% of "blueprint" plan websites do this. But the designs are not grounded in reality.
Neither are they grounded on the ground.
That's the point here, the house design and the site need to be connected for a cohesive approach.
This site plan shows the front drive circle aligning with the entry gable of the house. Existing topographic lines (light grey) and proposed (bright green) plan how the ground is re-graded. Each line represents one foot. Compare how the topopgraphy drops off around the house to the right in both site plan and elevation. See how they match? The grade makes a huge difference to each side of the building. But this isn't something that a simple house plan coordinates. It takes working back and forth between the two to refine the design.
RED : electrical ORANGE : data (phone, CATV) YELLOW : gas (and oil, steam) BLUE : water, potable GREEN : sewer (not seen in the photo above) PURPLE : water, non-potable (irrigation, reclaimed) PINK : survey WHITE : excavation
You'll notice the markings in my yard include two orange lines, one for telephone and the other for cable television. It's not uncommon for multiple services to be present that are owned or managed by different companies. In the Triangle exist many other common services: fiber optic data, liquid petroleum, natural gas distribution, security, satellite downlinks, irrigation, and re-claimed water.
These conventions came about because buried services are a huge hazard and having conventions to locate and key them are critical to the nation's infrastructure. A 1999 US Department of Transportation study was the impetus for tying local, regional, and national governments and utility companies to a clearinghouse of locating services available to the public for free. This is done through the auspices of the Common Ground Alliance.
If you're planning any kind of construction, repair, or installation within the ground, get all the utilities located for free through the website or three-digit telephone number: 811.
SteveHallArchitecture uses these same colors in our electronic drawings for consistency with the AWPA standards and continuity with what we see in the field. In a fast growing area like the Triangle, you'll see these markings everywhere. Next time you take a walk, test yourself on the standard!
August 21, 2017 was a big day for most of the country with a very rare total solar eclipse visible across much of the country.
In Cary, North Carolina, we only achieved about 95% of totality, but it was still an opportunity to test some basic optical principles and photography skills. So I set up a pair of 10x power binoculars as a projector and was pleasently surprised at the details I was able to photograph.
Solar eclipse, first shot
Even from the first photograph, a line of sunspots could be seen across the orb. The gear is nothing special. All of these photographs are of the image projected through the binoculars onto a white piece of paper and are taken with a Nexus 6 smart phone.
About half way to totality, a strange redness in the sky was obvious to several of us observing the event. Despite the short shadows from the midday solar position, the sunlight appeared as if at the end of the day. A significant diminishment of the radiative energy was obvious, too, and everything felt much cooler despite the continued glare.
Solar eclipse at maximum
2:44pm was the maximum pnuembra (shadow) for the photograph above. You can barely see the last sunspot grazing the edge of the moon's edge.
Solar eclipse photography setup
This was a five minute setup. The binoculars were screwed onto a cheap tripod and a large piece of foamcore board was hurridly cut to fit over the objective ends to create a shadow on the observation board. Gentle re-adjustment from time to time re-centered the image to maintain maximum focal clarity. This photo is from early in the event, and we later adjusted it to place the observation board on the ground so the projection was larger and focus more finely adjusted. (The golf umbrella and chair in the background were never used, the event was too exciting to sit down!)
Solar eclipse shadows
Shadows during solar eclipses are curious. Tiny openings between the leaves of trees act the same way the binocular setup works and effectively project the sun's image onto the ground. The only difference is that the binoculars use lensees to magnify the image with a short focal length and the tree "pinholes" magnify the images according to the proportion of distance of the hole to the ground.