Category Archives: Definition

Highcraft Beer Market

Restaurant Budgeting

Thinking about opening a restaurant or food service space?

Here's a quick primer on budgetary considerations if you are. (Steakhouse, lunch deli, breakfast cafe, bakery, coffee shop, wine bar, beer store, saloon, bistro, fast food, slow food, barbecue, buffet, cafeteria, tea house, greasy spoon, vegetarian hot dog stand, ice cream parlor, pizza pizzeria, concession booth, diner... what am I forgetting?)

Highcraft Beer Market

Start with equipment. I'm assuming you've already resolved the concept, the cuisine, and the chef. If not, that's first before you can figure out what equipment it takes to produce it. Most food service businesses struggle the most with what they need versus can afford. Commercial kitchen equipment is very expensive compared to residential appliances. You can often find used equipment to save significantly, but you'll still need $50k-$300k depending on your selections for oven, range, grill, exhaust hood (and fire suppression system), toaster, microwave, fryer, coffee station, beer taps, refrigerators, freezers, walk-ins, refrigerated display cases, refrigerated and steam tables, plate warmers, dishwashing sinks, and dishwashers.

The next most expensive category are the utilities and all the water, sewer, grease traps, fire sprinklers, heating, air conditioning, ventilation, electrical, and lighting they support.

Highcraft Beer Market

Bathroom requirements are relatively simple for a small retail space, so expect $10k for a single bathroom with plumbing, fixtures, exhaust, and required specialties: grab bars, mirror, toilet paper dispensers, soap dispensers, mirror, paper towel dispenser/dryer, trash cans, etc. Larger establishments or a full restaurant will need several times more.

Next comes furnishings—cabinets, casework, custom millwork, displays, tables, chairs, host station, artwork, signage, and point of sale.

Finishes are usually inexpensive unless they are lavish, dramatic, or architectural. Flooring is typically the most expensive, but ceramic or vinyl tile are efficient. Exposed concrete floors are also popular but end up being more expensive to satisfy the health department requirements to be sealed. Ceilings over food preparation areas must also be sealed and cleanable. Walls can be painted or have more sophisticated finishes.

Highcraft Beer Market, conceptual rendering

Highcraft Beer Market, conceptual rendering

Lighting is critical for retail spaces. Not only do the illumination levels need to be high, but the color rendering quality much more accurate than typical residential or office lighting. Brands design packaging to sell product and quality lighting shows off that design to its fullest potential.

Construction must be done by a licensed contractor unless you have the experience to do it yourself. The local economy is brisk right now (one of the highest in the US) and I recommend clients budget a 20% premium in pricing.

Highcraft Beer Market, pre-renovation

Highcraft Beer Market, pre-renovation

For design, an architect can walk with clients through the entire design–construction process, including building code analysis, design, architectural and engineering documents for permitting. I also assist clients to find a qualified contractor and administer the construction until completion, tailored to what you need. By fee schedule, design is "supposed" to be 8-12% of construction costs between $100k-$300k, roughly $8,000–$36,000. But it really depends.

For example, a small space that was recently renovated for food service will be much simpler than a large cold shell (no utilities) not intended for food. A stand-alone building is obviously even more complex. It helps if the landlord has drawings of the existing space versus the architect field surveying everything. The level of service can vary, too, from less detailed drawings for experienced clients or extra assistance to incorporate branding into the design and selection of equipment, finishes, fixtures, and furnishings.

Share: FacebooktwittermailFacebooktwittermail Follow: pinterestrssinstagrampinterestrssinstagram

Definition: Oriel

Definition: oriel

I bet you say "bay"

More fun with the 2,500 page, unabridged dictionary, without which our literature would be as lost as our architecture...

SUNSET

Blazing in gold, and quenching in purple,
Leaping like leopards in the sky,
Then at the feet of the old horizon
Laying her spotted face to die;
Stooping as low as the oriel window,
Touching the roof, and tinting the barn,
Kissing her bonnet to the meadow-
And the Juggler of Day is gone!

-- Emily Dickinson, 1864
Share: FacebooktwittermailFacebooktwittermail Follow: pinterestrssinstagrampinterestrssinstagram

Definition: Kern

No definition for the structural concept

No definition for the structural concept "kern"

I recently aquired a 2,500 page, five inch thick, 1975 unabridged Webster's Dictionary. But the massive heft and bulk bely its paucity of architectural information.

This dictionary has five entries for kern, but no definitions for the critical structural idea that spanned 1,000 years of architecture and responsible for every stone church in the Middle Ages and Renaissance.

The kern is the concept that enabled Dark Ages cathedrals to reach new heights, despite only stone masonry with no ability to resist tensile forces. James Ambrose, in my 1988 structural textbook, Building Structures, defines a kern as "a zone around the centroid of the section within which an eccentric force will not cause tension on the section."

Simply put, a kern is the center third of a foundation. When stacking stone, its foundation will resist rotating, lifting a side off of the ground, or cracking in tension as long as the weight and forces of the structure above are within this center third.

As soon as forces become eccentric beyond that zone, tension happens. The foundation will want to twist in the ground and additional measures must be taken to avoid a failure. This is easily mitigated with steel today, but before the Industrial Age, builders had to design with the kern to ensure stability.

Share: FacebooktwittermailFacebooktwittermail Follow: pinterestrssinstagrampinterestrssinstagram

Project Math

Dilbert 2009-12-07

Dilbert 2009-12-07

As explained by Scott Adams, design has to be resolved before the final cost of a project can be established. Yet I'm often asked how much a project will cost even before a napkin sketch.

But defining the project isn't difficult and doesn't take long. For a small project, it might just take an hour. And even if more information is needed, what is outstanding can be mapped out the first meeting.

Terms

The goal is the project definition. We can also define its constituent terms:

PROGRAM   =   Space Names   +   Space Sizes

The program is simply a list of all the spaces needed. These might adjust as details emerge, but an initial program is key to start design.

SCALE   =   Program   ×   Efficiency Factor

It's difficult to figure out non-spaces:  thicknesses of walls, chases, corridors, stairs, mechanical rooms, electrical closets, utility rooms, storage, and other incidental uses. Some factoring of these inefficiencies is required to better predict the final area of a building.

QUALITY   =   Non-quantitative project parameters

High quality design, envelope, energy efficiency, finishes, furnishings, fixtures, and equipment will have a more dramatic effect on budget than its size. For example, low grade builder homes can cost just $75/SF and take just a month to build while an exquisite jewel might cost more than $600/SF and take two years. Quality is the most significant factor in a building's cost and needs to be decided at the beginning of a project.

SCOPE   =   Scale   ×   Quality

Although defined early, adjustments between these two factors is a component of the design process. This blog attests that Better Than Bigger and we often find that great design may supplant the need for overly large spaces.

SCHEDULE   =   Time to complete the project

Can a contractor take two years to finish a small project? Must he complete the work before the home owners return from a three week vacation in Europe? Does a school renovation need to be worked on after hours? Are there elaborate security and cleanliness requirements for a hospital renovation? Does a large house and garden renovation need to be used for a lawn wedding? Will a home owner build in his spare time? All of these answers may dictate stringent schedule parameters. Depending on the responses, any of these may impact the design and labor costs of a project significantly.

BUDGET   =   Funds allotted to the project

Unfortunately, the design, construction, and real estate industries wildly swag irresponsible $/SF numbers around like water balloons. But an accurate project budget considers quality, schedule, and numerous factors beyond simple labor and materials. To be complete, a budget should also include contractor's overhead and profit, general conditions,* building permits, printing, furnishings, many items usually outside of the contract purchased by the owner like appliances and mailboxes, surveying, architectural and engineering services, municipal charges, utility costs, cleaning, and even move costs.

PROJECT DEFINITION   =   Scope   ×   Schedule   ×   Budget

The final project definition is the goal to begin design. However...

DESIGN   =   Resolution of the project definition

We want design to discover opportunities. Exploration is the purpose of planning. (Otherwise, we would always charge on to a job site hammering a bunch of lumber together hoping for the best. Ever see that happen?) Drawing and modeling is much cheaper than making construction mistakes, but the bigger benefit is that design finds opportunity.

So we begin with the project definition and make iterative design passes to progressively refine the terms and results. This may be more linear or more explorative depending on the project and the client. But these basic definitions must always equate at any point in the process.

Summary

Space Names   +   Space Sizes   =   Program

Program   ×   Efficiency Factor   =   Scale

Scale   ×   Quality   =   Scope

Scope   ×   Budget   ×   Schedule   =   Project Definition

Project Definition   ×   Resolution   =   Design

If you are starting a project, try defining each of these terms. And feel free to contact me to discuss and maybe sit down together and start sketching solutions.

* General Conditions:  Numerous contract conditions that stipulate the execution of the construction contract. These are very broad and depend on many project particular specifics. Examples include insurance, length of time to complete, product submittals for selection and approval, payments, review of the work, trash and dumpsters, protection and cleanup, bathroom facilities, access to the site, parking, drawing conventions and conflict resolution, and potentially many others, even to inappropriate or illegal behavior on the job site.

Share: FacebooktwittermailFacebooktwittermail Follow: pinterestrssinstagrampinterestrssinstagram