sketch, 2016-05-17, downtown house space stacking diagrams
Even if you don't get the project, you can still enjoy the process!
This was a quick look at an urban rooftop living room and kitchen addition. The building was a three-story masonry construction from 1915 in downtown Raleigh.
The existing stairs were in different locations on each floor. So this design re-stacked them for more efficiency toward the rear. And it introduced a skylight above it to filter natural daylight down the dark, north facing rear of the building.
The initial sketch worked out the spacial organization and then a 3D model looked more closely at the forms.
I often receive inquiries about providing permit drawings requested by local authorities for new tenants, small renovations and upfits. Business owners are moving into a new space and the local Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) has required permit drawings sealed by an architect to gain legal occupancy. This can be a relatively simple process. But it can also be complicated by only a detail or two. Here are some of the more typical complicating factors.
Permit drawings are almost always required to be scaled. Architects produce documents that are special in many ways, but one of the most important is that they represent three dimensional space in both measurement and proportion. This enables the drawings to accurately reflect required dimensions such as distances to a fire exit, clearances, area sizes, quantities of materials, and so on.
When a space is already existing, such as in a shopping center or office tenant space, it is important that this existing facility information be presented as part of the permit submittal. Sometimes a landlord already has CAD information of the building and site, which saves time. But when this existing information is less than what the AHJ will require, the architect and his consultants need to conduct a field survey to obtain the outstanding information.
Gas service and meter
These drawing components include typical items required on the average building permit set.
Building Code Summary — This is usually near the front of a set of documents and is a large listing of the building code requirements and existing building measurements used to explain the original or most recent building permit for the property. It prescribes the basic building construction type, occupancy classifications and uses, information about fire partitions and barriers, emergency exiting plans, and much more.
Suite Layout — Where multiple tenants are in a building, many jurisdictions require a layout of all the suites in the building.
Site Plan — A site plan shows property lines, surrounding streets, drives onto the property, all parking spaces including accessible ones, walks, plantings and natural areas, fire hydrants and sprinkler connections, and the building, its entry and exits. Where multiple buildings exist on the property, clearances between buildings must be known.
Structural Drawings — These are often needed when new equipment is being added or changed above the ground floor or on the roof. They also explain where major structural components of the building are being adapted, such as with wall openings, wall-mounted equipment, or significant ceiling suspended items.
Architectural Floor Plan — This plan shows all the spaces in the building, including areas outside those of the intended project. Particularly of interest are the corridors, stairs, exit door configurations, and fire extinguisher cabinets. The architectural floor plan needs to correctly indicate all walls, doors, windows, stairs, and elevators at the correct sizes. It also includes furniture, fixtures, and equipment that are intended in the final space, including toilets, sinks, bathroom partitions, cabinetry and casework. Any other floor-mounted trade items in the sections below are often shown on the architectural floor plan as well.
Reflected Ceiling Plan — This is a drawing necessary to show the general ceiling configuration and height, lighting, exit lighting, exit signs, HVAC grilles, fire sprinkler heads, smoke detection, and alarm horns and strobes.
Building Elevations — For an interior space, this seems an odd necessity but some AHJs (like Raleigh and Cary) are very particular about hiding rooftop HVAC systems and want to see all the views of the building exterior. A roof plan might also provide this information.
Roof Plan — This plan is be necessary if HVAC or other systems have rooftop work in the project.
Fire Protection — Usually only for sprinklered buildings, these include sprinkler piping, sprinkler heads, calculations, and the valves, connections, and supporting equipment.
Plumbing — In addition to piping, plumbing drawings show fixtures like toilets, sinks, lavatories, and janitor sinks. Also explained are water meters, backflow preventers, building water and sewer connections, and the calculations supporting the design.
Mechanical — In addition to any HVAC units and related ductwork, mechanical drawings show important information regarding calculations for air changes, humidity control, ventilation provisions, and many other details related to the mechanical design of the building.
Electrical — These drawings indicate electrical power service and distribution, lighting and controls, services to mechanical systems, and all the incidental components requiring power such as appliances, equipment, and fans. The electrical drawings often include critical fire alarm systems as well as those for data of internal and external networks, phone systems, security, intercom, and even audio-visual.
These and plenty of other items could require illustration by the local authorities during permit plan review.
Change of Use
Although it doesn’t always require large changes in the building, modifying a space from one use to another can trigger further requirements or changes. By code, the use includes both the occupancy classification (Business, Assembly, Retail, Industrial, etc.) as well as the particular function within the spaces (warehouse to auto repair, accountant office to medical office, office space to retail space, etc.) The building code has particulars about many different functions so it isn’t possible to generalize about how these could develop. I like to research these at the beginning and even discuss potential conflicts with the local authority early in the process to avoid surprises during the final inspection.
Push bar exit device
Even without changing occupancy or use, the building code itself is continually adjusting in reaction to scientific, political, and cultural interests. Officially this happens every two to four years, but subtle clarifications, amendments, or local adjustments can happen any time. Just because a space was compliant five years prior doesn’t mean it satisfies current requirements. And AHJs use new tenant occupancies and renovations to review existing buildings to reflect increasing concerns for fire safety, accessibility, plumbing fixture counts, and general life safety.
Renovations, Up-fits, and Changes
Each AHJ has slightly different stipulations for just how small an alteration can be before it requires a building permit. But it is safe to assume that only a few inches adjustment to the direction, width, or configuration of a path of travel in a room, along a corridor, through any door, around an object, or across the site to the public way will require a permit submitted with architectural drawings.
This process sometimes seems picky, even to this architect. But its primary purpose is to “safeguard the public’s health, safety and welfare”, in the words of the state statute by which architects are licensed. Since even the AHJ is not licensed, the building code review process basically pins responsibility on the architect to ensure compliance. The requirement for sealed drawings is the legal method for accomplishing this.